On September 27, 2012, President Omar al-Bashir of Sudan and President Salva Kiir of South Sudan signed nine landmark agreements in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The agreements mark the culmination of a two-year long negotiation process facilitated by the African Union High-Level Implementation Panel, or AUHIP, and address issues arising from South Sudan's independence from Sudan. These issues are varied and include the modalities for South Sudan's export of oil through Sudan, border security and demarcation, and bilateral trade, among others. The agreements are an important first step toward consolidating peace, security, and economic growth between the Sudans. In most cases, however, instead of setting out mutually acceptable compromises, the agreements establish committees or commissions to undertake the difficult work of resolving thorny political, security, and economic issues. The most contentious of these could lead to further violent conflict between the two countries if not resolved.