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U.S. and U.N. Must Apply Coordinated Leverage to Ensure Successful Congo Peace Process

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U.S. and U.N. Must Apply Coordinated Leverage to Ensure Successful Congo Peace Process

Posted by Enough Team on February 12, 2013

UNDER EMBARGO UNTIL: Thursday, February 14, 2013 at 12:01 a.m. Eastern

Contact: Tracy Fehr,, +1-202-459-1219

WASHINGTON, DC – The U.S. and U.N. must appoint senior-level envoys to lead the international community in applying incentives and deterrents necessary to bring all regional stakeholders to the table, and ensure they reach a final agreement addressing long-term drivers of conflict in eastern Congo, argues a new Enough Project paper.

The paper contends that the U.S. and U.N. should use their diplomatic and economic leverage to persuade regional stakeholders, including the governments of Rwanda and Uganda, to constructively participate in the peace process. It suggests that the U.S. apply coercive measures such as the threat of sanctions on Rwandan and Ugandan officials aiding the M23, as well as supporting the continued delay and potential cancellation of World Bank funds to Rwanda.

Enough Project Executive Director John C. Bradshaw said:

“The international community must use a carefully calibrated combination of carrots and sticks to get key regional actors to the negotiating table.  The U.S. can help lead this process by appointing a presidential envoy who could lead the international community in garnering the political will needed to apply a balanced leverage package.  A durable and long-term solution will require concessions from all stakeholders.”

The paper outlines specific economic and diplomatic tools that the U.S. and U.N. could use to get each of the essential actors—Rwanda, Congo, Uganda, M23, and local leaders in eastern Congo—to the table.  The paper specifies, however, that M23 inclusion must be accompanied by coercive preconditions.

Enough Project Associate Director of Research and co-author of the paper Aaron Hall said:

“The Congo peace process must be inclusive of civil society stakeholders to ensure that a final agreement is reached that addresses the region’s chronic drivers of conflict—poor governance and inadequate political representation.  A combination of increased commitment by local, regional, and international actors to reach a long-term solution is imperative to ending the deadly cycle of violence in eastern Congo.”

This is the final paper in an Enough Project’s three-part series about the process, substance, and leverage necessary to create a path toward a viable peace in eastern Congo and the wider region.

Read the full paper: “Coordinated International Leverage: The Missing Element from Congo’s Peace Process

Read the other two papers in the series: “‘What Is Not Said Is What Divides:’ Critical Issues for a Peace Process to End the Deadly Congo War” and “A Broadened Peace Process Is Needed in Congo


The Enough Project is a project of the Center for American Progress to end genocide and crimes against humanity. Founded in 2007, Enough focuses on the crises in Sudan, South Sudan, eastern Congo, and areas affected by the Lord’s Resistance Army. Enough conducts intensive field research, develops practical policies to address these crises, and shares sensible tools to empower citizens and groups working for change. To learn more about Enough, go to