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UPDATE: Tracking Compliance with U.N. Security Council Resolution 2046 on Sudan and South Sudan

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UPDATE: Tracking Compliance with U.N. Security Council Resolution 2046 on Sudan and South Sudan

Posted by Jenn Christian on May 22, 2012

UPDATE: Tracking Compliance with U.N. Security Council Resolution 2046 on Sudan and South Sudan

In the wake of U.N. Special Envoy to Sudan and South Sudan Haile Menkerios’ briefing to the U.N. Security Council on May 16 concerning Sudan and South Sudan’s compliance with Resolution 2046, Khartoum remains, in many respects, defiant. In particular, Sudan continues to resist a return to negotiations with South Sudan, asserting that security issues must first be addressed. Notably, Resolution 2046 explicitly provides that the two sides must return “unconditionally” to negotiations. In light of the impasse, President Thabo Mbeki, head of the African Union High-Level Implementation Panel, or AUHIP, met with President Bashir over the weekend. The meeting did not, however, yield immediate assurances from Khartoum that it will return to negotiations anytime soon.

For its part, South Sudan has called in recent days for the imposition of sanctions on Sudan for its failure to implement certain aspects of Resolution 2046. "They [Sudan] have violated all aspects of the resolution of the Security Council. So it is time the global community extends their support to the decision of the UNSC and imposes steep sanctions […] against Khartoum," said South Sudan’s Minister of Information Barnaba Marial Benjamin.

In an effort to track these and other developments, the Enough Project has updated its timeline and chart that track Sudan, South Sudan, and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North’s compliance with Resolution 2046. As developments continue to unfold, the Enough Project will update its timeline and chart accordingly.

View timeline infographic full-screen.

To track the actors’ compliance with those conditions on which the resolution does not attach a corresponding deadline, the Enough Project has produced a new table. The table identifies the conditions from Resolution 2046 with which deadlines are not associated and then lists indicators of actors’ compliance, or lack thereof, with each of those conditions.


  Conditions in UNSC Resolution 2046 without Corresponding Deadlines   Indicators of Implementation or Lack Thereof  

Unconditional withdrawal of Sudanese and South Sudanese armed forces to their respective sides of the border (Operative Para. 1(ii))

  None to date.  

Sudan and South Sudan cease the harboring of and providing support to rebel groups in the other state (Operative Para. 1(iv))


4 May 2012: President Bashir accuses the leader of the SPLM-N rebellion in South Kordofan, Abdel-Aziz Al-Hilu, of being “a mere façade of the foreign powers” that fund the SPLM-N’s activities, an implicit reference to South Sudan’s suspected support of SPLM-N forces.

10 May 2012: President Bashir proclaims, “"If they [South Sudan] want to change the regime in Khartoum, we will work to change the regime in Juba. If they want to attrite us, we will attrite them. And if they want to support our rebels, we will support theirs."


Sudan and South Sudan activate an ad hoc committee under the JPSM to receive and investigate complaints and allegations made by one party against the other (Operative Para. 1(v))

  None to date.  
  Sudan and South Sudan must immediately cease all hostile propaganda and inflammatory statements (Operative Para. 1(vi))  

9 May 2012: Chairperson of the Security Committee of South Sudan’s National Legislative Assembly announces that South Sudan will again attack Heglig if SAF forces continue to attack South Sudanese territory.

11 May 2012: President Bashir proclaims "an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth" policy in any future attacks by South Sudan against Sudan. President Bashir went on to say, "We have fertilized the soil with their [South Sudan’s] dead," and SAF forces "will defend the country and chop off any hand stretching to take it."


Immediate cessation of attacks against property or religious and cultural symbols belonging to nationals of the other state (Operative Para. 1(vi))

  None to date.  

Sudan and South Sudan extend full protection of nationals of the other state in line with international principles and consistent with the Framework Agreement on the Status of Nationals of the Other State and Related Matters initialed in March 2012 (Operative Para. 1(vi))


14 May 2012: Humanitarian airlifts begin to evacuate an estimated 12,000 South Sudanese previously stranded in Kosti, Sudan to Juba, via Khartoum. The airlifts are organized by the International Organization for Migration, or IOM, and supported by the governments of Sudan and South Sudan.

18 May 2012: The International Organization of Migration, or IOM, continues airlifts of stranded South Sudanese out of Sudan. Flights have been increased from two to four a day and IOM plans to further expand the number of flights to six per day.


GoS and SPLM-N extend full cooperation with the AUHIP and the Chair of IGAD to reach a negotiated settlement (Operative Para. 3)


8 May 2012: The SPLM-N calls for “a comprehensive peaceful settlement” to conflict in Sudan.

9 May 2012: The leadership council of the NCP, chaired by President Bashir, states that it does not agree to elements of UNSC resolution 2046 regarding negotiations with the SPLM-N.

10 May 2012: Commander in chief of SRF forces and SPLM-N chairman, Abdel-Aziz Adam El Hilu, says that "the root cause of conflict in Sudan can never be addressed through selective dialogue. It is requires comprehensive understanding and settlement."

14 May 2012: Sudan’s parliament rejects negotiations with the SPLM-N.


GoS and SPLM-N acceptance of the tripartite agreement for humanitarian access to Blue Nile and South Kordofan (Operative Para. 4)


8 May 2012: SPLM-N reiterates its acceptance of the Tripartite Proposal and expresses its willingness to initiate a “humanitarian cessation of hostilities” to allow for the Proposal’s implementation.

14 May 2012: Sudan’s parliament rejects the Tripartite Proposal.


Protection and promotion of human rights in accordance with international humanitarian and human rights law by all parties (Operative Para. 7)


11 May 2012: Navi Pillay, U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights, condemns Sudan’s "indiscriminate" aerial bombings of South Sudan, saying, "I am saddened and outraged to learn that such attacks which place civilians at great risk – and have already killed and injured some and caused many thousands of others to flee – have been taking place again in recent days." Pillay further declares, "Deliberate or reckless attacks on civilian areas can, depending on the circumstances, amount to an international crime."


Go here for the most recent Compliance Tracker Updates.

Photo: Rubkona market in South Sudan's Unity state smolders after an aerial bombardment in late April (AP)