Section 1502 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act has been a primary driver of corporate and regional policy change on conflict minerals in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Congo), helping create an economic incentive for ending exploitative mining practices and reforming the region’s minerals sector. However, Dodd-Frank 1502 is only one component in a broad set of peacebuilding tools, and it must be accompanied by other initiatives to advance development of a responsible minerals trade that improves the livelihoods and security of people living in eastern Congo. These changes toward peace must include government and corporate responses, programs directly supporting the livelihoods of community members in eastern Congo, and full implementation of the regional peace agreement known as the Peace, Security and Cooperation (PSC) Framework in a way that is truly inclusive of those most affected by it.
This resource page is designed to provide an update on the efforts to end the conflict minerals trade that finances numerous brutal armed groups in eastern Congo, note remaining challenges, and suggest strategies for encouraging lasting peace.
For more information, please see the additional resources below - and check out the letter published by Congolese civil society members here and joint open letter here.
For nearly two decades, the war and widespread illicit exploitation of natural resources in eastern Congo has subjected Congolese citizens to a humanitarian crisis that desperately needs to be addressed. Broad reform of the minerals sector is part of a comprehensive strategy to end violence in eastern Congo, and Dodd-Frank 1502 is one catalytic component of that effort.
As part of the wider Wall Street reform effort, Dodd-Frank 1502 ordered the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to develop a rule that requires companies to find out where their minerals come from. The rule, adopted in 2012, aims to interrupt long-standing practices of supply chain opacity, replacing them with mandatory corporate transparency, due diligence, and public awareness about four minerals that are known to fuel unspeakable violence in Congo and the surrounding region. The law has provided an economic incentive for change, which has led to increased security for many mining communities once directly controlled or terrorized by armed groups.
However, governments, donors, and companies have yet to deliver or finalize many of the other critical reforms necessary to end the conflict minerals trade.
Three main areas of reform are needed:
Livelihood programs for mining communities
Increased transparency and due diligence
Governance and mining reforms in Congo and the region
Without attention to these three categories, Dodd-Frank 1502 and any other complementary initiatives to end the conflict minerals trade in eastern Congo will be incomplete.
Livelihood Projects for Mining Communities
Dodd-Frank 1502 is making it less profitable for armed groups to illegally trade minerals in Congo and the region, helping begin the shift of the economic environment in eastern Congo and the region away from benefiting armed groups and towards creating incentives for a peaceful trade. Although miners who worked in conflict mines were subject to immense harassment, debt slavery, and attacks by armed groups and military officers, the shifts away from conflict mining also mean that many miners have had to move to other areas to try to earn a livelihood, while the responsible minerals trade slowly develops. From the beginning, human rights and mineral reform advocates have called for livelihood programs for these miners to complement Dodd-Frank 1502, but the programs have been too slow in coming to the ground in Congo. They must be boosted now. This includes:
Increasing capacity-building and micro-finance programs for artisanal mining cooperatives in eastern Congo
Finalizing reforms to the minerals sector
Respecting the rights of artisanal miners and ensuring they are given access to a legal, profitable market for their minerals
Significantly enhancing programs to develop alternative sources of income, such as high-value agriculture
Increased Transparency and Due Diligence in Tin, Tantalum, Tungsten, and Gold Supply Chains
The International Conference on the Great Lakes Region (ICGLR) has spearheaded a new regional minerals certification process. Certification is a means to the goals of transparency, compliance, and rule of law. The process has been slow and must advance with more expediency for Congo to see outside investment and experience benefits on the ground.
Retail companies are increasingly engaged in developing positive supply chain management tools, joining multi-stakeholder groups to advance the tools and policies for conflict-free minerals sourcing, and taking an increasing interest in supporting peace in the Great Lakes region. This evolution is largely due to Dodd-Frank 1502’s disclosure requirements and has positive implications for numerous industries and minerals-rich regions around the world.
Governance and Mining Reforms in Congo and the Region
Governance reform in the region’s mining sector must be strengthened, and we must not lose momentum for meaningful, lasting change. Great Lakes governments, particularly Congo, Rwanda and Uganda, must be at the forefront of these efforts, but the U.S. and other governments, international financial institutions, private investors, mining companies, consumers, and other international actors all have roles to play. They should work closely with Congolese mining communities and regional stakeholders to improve mine inspections in Congo and the ICGLR minerals certification process, increase meaningful support to Congolese miners, and invest in conflict-free mines, particularly for gold.
In large part due to Dodd-Frank 1502 and related reform efforts, there is progress toward the development of a conflict-free minerals sector in Congo. There are laws in place to prevent multinational companies from having opaque supply chains, and an increasing number of mines are being validated as conflict-free. Dodd-Frank 1502 is only one part of the solution, but if it is undermined or dispensed with, companies will return to a climate of impunity for profiting from violent conflict and lucrative minerals will continue to enrich warlords in Congo.
This resource page is designed to provide an update on the efforts to end the conflict minerals trade that finances numerous brutal armed groups in eastern Congo, note remaining challenges, and suggest strategies for encouraging lasting peace. Read More »
On July 27, 2014, The Enough Project participated in roundtable discussion at the Jewelers of America (JA) New York Show, co-hosted by JA and the National Retail Federation (NRF), to discuss the need for responsible gold sourcing from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Currently, the illegal mining and trade of minerals, particularly gold, fuel terrible violence and suffering for the Congolese people. The discussion centered on industry experiences and practical tools to build on current corporate initiatives for responsible sourcing and development in Congo and the Great Lakes Region.
If America really wants to help Africa grow with trade and investment, it needs to ditch a number of stereotypes it still holds. Enough's founding director, John Prendergast talks ways to counter negative stereotypes about Africa.
Representatives of Sudanese diaspora communities and Sudan activist groups in the United States released a letter to the U.S. Administration and the African leaders requesting that the well-being of the Sudanese people be remembered in the work of the Summit. Read More »
This week, the US Africa Leaders Summit in Washington marks an unprecedented opportunity for political and business leaders to discuss new investment opportunities in Africa. Major summit events include the US-Africa Business Forum, co-hosted by Bloomberg Philanthropies and moderated by Bill Clinton, as well as numerous meetings focused on trade and economics. As leaders from the US and throughout Africa discuss an emerging frontier for investors, Enough presents its newest report, Doing Good while Doing Well: Is there a Win-Win Formula for Investing Responsibly in Congo’s Minerals Sector? Political and business actors taking advantage of new investment opportunities and partnerships should also use innovative corporate social responsibility approaches, highlighted in Enough’s new report. Read More »
On July 11, 2014, Senators Robert Menendez (D-NJ), Bob Corker (R-TN), and Christopher Coons (D-DE), wrote a letter to President Obama expressing deep concern over the escalating violence in Sudan. The Senators urged the Obama Administration to elevate its current efforts toward addressing the violence in Darfur, South Kordofan, and Blue Nile, as well as to strengthen the existing mandate to “ensure the protection of civilians, improve humanitarian access, and seek sustainable political resolutions.” Read More »
Unlike in the electronics industry, where tech giants Intel and HP have established themselves as industry leaders in the effort to source 3TG responsibly, the automotive industry has largely lacked a conflict-free champion. Lately, however, Ford has taken steps to distinguish itself as a potential catalyst for industry-wide change. Though much more work must be done to bring the conflict-free initiative to the automotive industry, Ford’s Sustainability Report 2013/2014 is a step in the right direction. Read More »
Pundits and policymakers alike increasingly push the narrative that America’s influence is waning and that it lacks the leadership to get anything done internationally. Despite the rhetoric plastered across editorial columns, a quiet, but ruthlessly effective effort is targeting and punishing international criminal actors and regimes on America’s newest front lines: the international financial system. Akshaya Kumar and Ken Sofer explain why Congress should give the Department of Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control the resources necessary for an expanded mission. Read More »
Seventy-eight international human rights groups, including the Enough Project and Humanity United, joined together today to call for a fresh approach to U.S. policy on the war-torn countries of Sudan and South Sudan.Read More »